Tour de France 1978 : the real numbers of doping

The dirtiest Tour de France in history?
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Last update : 13/05/2019

Statistics

The table below establishes, team by team, the count of the riders who have been or will be subsequently "pinned" in doping cases.

Teams Riders Pinned Top 10 Pinned Podium Pinned
PEUGEOT-ESSO-MICHELIN 10 9 0 0 0 0
TI-RALEIGH 10 4 2 1 0 0
C & A 10 3 2 2 0 0
KAS-CAMPAGNOLO 10 5 1 0 0 0
MIKO-MERCIER-HUTCHINSON 10 9 2 2 1 1
RENAULT-GITANE-CAMPAGNOLO 10 7 1 1 1 1
TEKA 10 6 0 0 0 0
LEJEUNE-B.P 10 5 0 0 0 0
FIAT-FRANCE 10 2 0 0 0 0
VELDA-LANO-FLANDRIA 10 6 1 1 1 1
JOBO-SUPERIA 10 4 1 1 0 0
Total 110 60 10 8 3 3
Pourcentage 54,55% 80% 100%

Pinned: Number of riders who violated the anti-doping rules.
Included in this category: riders who have been tested positive (including refuse to submit to doping control or hematocrit> 50%), having acknowledged having doped, having been sanctioned (by the justice, their federation or their team).
Not included (for example) : those whose sample B was negative.
Top 10: number of riders present in the top 10 of the final general classification.
Podium: number of riders present in the first 3 of the final general classification.

Other statistics :



The official ranking

Ranking source : www.memoire-du-cyclisme.net (30/01/2008)

  1. Hinault Bernard in 112h03'02'' - 1982 : absence to control (no penalty)
  2. Zoetemelk Joop at 03'56'' - 1976 : confessions in 1977 (no penalty) ; 1977 : positive control ; 1978 : confessions in 1979 (no penalty) ; 1979 : positive control ; 1983 : positive control ; 198x : positive control (sanction not known)
  3. Agostinho Joachim at 06'54'' - 1969 : positive control ; 1972 : positive control ; 1973 : positive control ; 1977 : positive control
  4. Bruyère Joseph at 09'04'' - 1974 : positive control ; 197x : confessions in 1988 (no penalty)
  5. Seznec Christian at 12'50'' - 1988 : positive control
  6. Wellens Paul at 14'38'' - 1985 : absence to control (sanction not known)
  7. Galdos Francisco at 17'08''
  8. Lubberding Henk at 17'26''
  9. Van Impe Lucien at 21'01'' - 1981 : absence to control
  10. Martinez Mariano at 22'58'' - 197x : confessions in 1997 (no penalty) ; 1980 : absence to control (no penalty)
  11. Nilsson Sven-ake at 23'00''
  12. Martin Raymond at 32'58'' - 1982 : positive control
  13. Maertens Freddy at 34'26'' - 1974 : positive control (sanction not known) ; 1977 : positive control ; 1977 : positive control ; 1977 : positive control ; 1977 : confessions in 1978 (no penalty) ; 1978 : police investigation (sanction not known) ; 1986 : positive control (sanction not known)
  14. Laurent Michel at 40'00''
  15. Romero André at 49'34'' - 1975 : positive control
  16. Janssens Edward at 51'19''
  17. Hézard Yves at 53'20'' - 1971 : positive control
  18. Menendez Antonio at 53'28'' - 1977 : positive control ; 1979 : positive control (sanction not known)
  19. Bittinger René at 53'47''
  20. De Schoenmaecker Joseph at 54'14''
  21. Bazzo Pierre at 55'35'' - 1983 : positive control
  22. Martins José at 57'07'' - 1979 : positive control (sanction not known)
  23. Lelay Gilbert at 57'40'' - 1979 : positive control
  24. Raas Jan at 58'43''
  25. Den Hertog Fedor at 1h01'46''
  26. Martens René at 1h02'29''
  27. Le Guilloux Maurice at 1h02'40'' - 1973 : positive control
  28. Bourreau Bernard at 1h06'34'' - 1976 : fraud (sanction not known) ; 1976 : fraud
  29. Perret Patrickh - 1982 : absence to control (sanction not known)
  30. Julien Ferdinand at 1h06'45''
  31. Villemiane Pierre-raymond at 1h07'50'' - 1989 : positive control
  32. Pujol Juan at 1h08'20''
  33. Rouxel Charles at 1h09'19'' - 1975 : absence to control (sanction not known)
  34. Kelly Sean at 1h10'18'' - 1984 : positive control ; 1988 : positive control
  35. Thaler Klaus-peter at 1h10'22''
  36. Mollet André at 1h13'38'' - 1982 : confessions in 1987 (no penalty) ; 198x : judicial investigation and confessions (no penalty)
  37. Chaumaz Gilbert at 1h15'50'' - 1979 : positive control ; 1979 : absence to control
  38. Teirlinck Willy at 1h16'30'' - 1977 : positive control
  39. Oliva Andrès at 1h20'06''
  40. Vilardebo Pedro at 1h21'27'' - 1978 : fraud
  41. Lasa Miguel-maria at 1h21'37'' - 1977 : positive control
  42. Legeay Roger at 1h29'39'' - 1974 : positive control
  43. Knetemann Gerrie at 1h30'10'' - 1974 : positive control (no penalty) ; 1977 : positive control (no penalty)
  44. Beyssens Herman at 1h31'58''
  45. Mathis Hubert at 1h34'40'' - 1982 : positive control
  46. Alfonsel Bernardo at 1h35'51''
  47. Wesemael Wilfried at 1h36'16''
  48. De Carvalho Alain at 1h39'48''
  49. Demeyer Marc at 1h40'50''
  50. Sanders Dominique at 1h41'26'' - 1981 : positive control
  51. Dillen René at 1h41'31''
  52. Didier Lucien at 1h44'44'' - 1982 : positive control
  53. Muselet Christianh - 1986 : police investigation (no penalty)
  54. Patritti Alain at 1h50'07'' - 1977 : confessions in 1987 (no penalty) ; 1977 : police investigation
  55. De Cauwer José at 1h50'12'' - 2000 : confessions in 2005 (no penalty)
  56. Van Vlierberghe Albert at 1h52'03''
  57. Van Den Hoek Aad at 1h53'13''
  58. Quilfen Bernard at 1h53'46''
  59. Tinazzi Marcelh - 1982 : absence to control ; 1984 : positive control
  60. Laurens Marcel at 1h56'53''
  61. Esclassan Jacques at 2h00'25'' - 1978 : contrôle positif et aveux en 1978 (no penalty)
  62. Bossis Jacques at 2h02'36'' - 1983 : positive control
  63. Chalmel André at 2h03'23''
  64. Vandenbroucke Jean-luc at 2h04'07'' - 1976 : positive control ; 1976 : positive control ; 1976 : positive control (sanction not known) ; 1978 : positive control and confessions in 1978 (no penalty)
  65. Hoban Barry at 2h06'33'' - 1973 : positive control (sanction not known)
  66. Plet Eugène at 2h10'16''
  67. Beucherie Serge at 2h16'40''
  68. Durel Philippe at 2h17'13'' - 1981 : fraud
  69. Gauthier Jean-louis at 2h17'16''
  70. Sherwen Paul at 2h18'54''
  71. Budet Alain at 2h20'13''
  72. Bertolo Dino at 2h25'50''
  73. Fussien Jean-jacques at 2h27'02''
  74. Bertin Yvon at 2h36'31''
  75. Gisiger Daniel at 2h49'16'' - 198x : confessions in 2007 (no penalty)
  76. Delépine Régis at 3h02'41'' - 1975 : positive control
  77. Coccolo Dante at 3h24'18''
  78. Tesnière Philippe at 3h52'26''



The alternative ranking

The ranking as it would be if we excluded all racers "pinned" in doping cases during their career.

  1. Galdos Francisco
  2. Lubberding Henk
  3. Nilsson Sven-ake
  4. Laurent Michel
  5. Janssens Edward
  6. Bittinger René
  7. De Schoenmaecker Joseph
  8. Raas Jan
  9. Den Hertog Fedor
  10. Martens René
  11. Julien Ferdinand
  12. Pujol Juan
  13. Thaler Klaus-peter
  14. Oliva Andrès
  15. Beyssens Herman
  16. Alfonsel Bernardo
  17. Wesemael Wilfried
  18. De Carvalho Alain
  19. Demeyer Marc
  20. Dillen René
  21. Van Vlierberghe Albert
  22. Van Den Hoek Aad
  23. Quilfen Bernard
  24. Laurens Marcel
  25. Chalmel André
  26. Plet Eugène
  27. Beucherie Serge
  28. Gauthier Jean-louis
  29. Sherwen Paul
  30. Budet Alain
  31. Bertolo Dino
  32. Fussien Jean-jacques
  33. Bertin Yvon
  34. Coccolo Dante
  35. Tesnière Philippe



The list of participants

The list of participants by team

PEUGEOT-ESSO-MICHELIN

64 years of existence, 73 cases, ie 1,14 per year

1. Thévenet Bernard - 1976 : 2 positive controls (sanction not known) ; 1977 : positive control ; 197x : confessions in 1978 (no penalty)
2. Bourreau Bernard - 1976 : fraud (sanction not known) ; 1976 : fraud
3. Danguillaume Jean-pierre - 1974 : positive control ; 197x : confessions in 1978 (no penalty)
4. Delépine Régis - 1975 : positive control
5. Esclassan Jacques - 1978 : contrôle positif et aveux en 1978 (no penalty)
6. Hézard Yves - 1971 : positive control
7. Laurent Michel
8. Ovion Régis - 1976 : positive control
9. Sibille Guy - 1976 : positive control ; 1977 : absence to control
10. Vandenbroucke Jean-luc - 1976 : positive control ; 1976 : positive control ; 1976 : positive control (sanction not known) ; 1978 : positive control and confessions in 1978 (no penalty)

TI-RALEIGH

20 years of existence, 9 cases, ie 0,45 per year

11. Kuiper Hennie
12. De Cauwer José - 2000 : confessions in 2005 (no penalty)
13. Karstens Gerben - 1969 : positive control ; 1974 : absence to control ; 1974 : fraud
14. Knetemann Gerrie - 1974 : positive control (no penalty) ; 1977 : positive control (no penalty)
15. Lubberding Henk
16. Raas Jan
17. Thaler Klaus-peter
18. Van Den Hoek Aad
19. Wellens Paul - 1985 : absence to control (sanction not known)
20. Wesemael Wilfried

C & A

21. Van Impe Lucien - 1981 : absence to control
22. Bruyère Joseph - 1974 : positive control ; 197x : confessions in 1988 (no penalty)
23. De Schoenmaecker Joseph
24. Dillen René
25. Janssens Edward
26. Laurens Marcel
27. Loos Ludo
28. Martin Jacques
29. Martens René
30. Planckaert Walter - 1977 : positive control

KAS-CAMPAGNOLO

22 years of existence, 10 cases, ie 0,45 per year

31. Galdos Francisco
32. Andiano Julian
33. Cima José-enrique - 1979 : positive control (sanction not known) ; 1982 : positive control (sanction not known)
34. Fernandez Ovies Faustino - 1979 : positive control
35. Martinez Heredia Enrique
36. Nazabal José - 1978 : positive control ; 1979 : positive control (sanction not known)
37. Pesarrodona José
38. Pujol Juan
39. Pozo Sebastian - 1977 : absence to control ; 1977 : positive control ; 1979 : positive control (sanction not known)
40. Suarez Cueva Jésus - 1979 : positive control (sanction not known)

MIKO-MERCIER-HUTCHINSON

45 years of existence, 32 cases, ie 0,71 per year

41. Zoetemelk Joop - 1976 : confessions in 1977 (no penalty) ; 1977 : positive control ; 1978 : confessions in 1979 (no penalty) ; 1979 : positive control ; 1983 : positive control ; 198x : positive control (sanction not known)
42. Hoban Barry - 1973 : positive control (sanction not known)
43. Le Guilloux Maurice - 1973 : positive control
44. Martin Raymond - 1982 : positive control
45. Mathis Hubert - 1982 : positive control
46. Mollet André - 1982 : confessions in 1987 (no penalty) ; 198x : judicial investigation and confessions (no penalty)
47. Nilsson Sven-ake
48. Perret Patrick - 1982 : absence to control (sanction not known)
49. Seznec Christian - 1988 : positive control
50. Rouxel Charles - 1975 : absence to control (sanction not known)

RENAULT-GITANE-CAMPAGNOLO

24 years of existence, 21 cases, ie 0,88 per year

51. Hinault Bernard - 1982 : absence to control (no penalty)
52. Bernaudeau Jean-rené - 1982 : absence to control (no penalty) ; 1985 : confessions in 1990 (no penalty) ; 1986 : absence to control (sanction not known)
53. Bertin Yvon
54. Bossis Jacques - 1983 : positive control
55. Chalmel André
56. Chaumaz Gilbert - 1979 : positive control ; 1979 : absence to control
57. Didier Lucien - 1982 : positive control
58. Quilfen Bernard
59. Teirlinck Willy - 1977 : positive control
60. Villemiane Pierre-raymond - 1989 : positive control

TEKA

15 years of existence, 18 cases, ie 1,2 per year

61. Torres Pedro
62. Alfonsel Bernardo
63. Elorriaga Javier
64. Garcia Eulalio - 1978 : fraud
65. Lasa Miguel-maria - 1977 : positive control
66. Martinez Paulino - 1983 : positive control
67. Martins José - 1979 : positive control (sanction not known)
68. Menendez Antonio - 1977 : positive control ; 1979 : positive control (sanction not known)
69. Oliva Andrès
70. Vilardebo Pedro - 1978 : fraud

LEJEUNE-B.P

18 years of existence, 19 cases, ie 1,06 per year

71. Legeay Roger - 1974 : positive control
72. Bazzo Pierre - 1983 : positive control
73. Den Hertog Fedor
74. Friou Patrick
75. Gallopin Joël - 1979 : positive control
76. Gauthier Jean-louis
77. Gisiger Daniel - 198x : confessions in 2007 (no penalty)
78. Gutierrez Antoine - 1978 : fraud ; 1979 : positive control
79. Le Denmat Michel
80. Plet Eugène

FIAT-FRANCE

2 years of existence, 1 case, ie 0,5 per year

81. Fussien Jean-jacques
82. Beucherie Serge
83. Budet Alain
84. De Carvalho Alain
85. Hardy Jacky
86. Lelay Gilbert - 1979 : positive control
87. Sanders Dominique - 1981 : positive control
88. Tesnière Philippe
89. Van Vlaslaer Didier
90. Sherwen Paul

VELDA-LANO-FLANDRIA

22 years of existence, 28 cases, ie 1,27 per year

91. Maertens Freddy - 1974 : positive control (sanction not known) ; 1977 : positive control ; 1977 : positive control ; 1977 : positive control ; 1977 : confessions in 1978 (no penalty) ; 1978 : police investigation (sanction not known) ; 1986 : positive control (sanction not known)
92. Pollentier Michel - 1974 : positive control ; 1977 : positive control ; 1978 : fraud
93. Agostinho Joachim - 1969 : positive control ; 1972 : positive control ; 1973 : positive control ; 1977 : positive control
94. Beyssens Herman
95. Bittinger René
96. Demeyer Marc
97. Kelly Sean - 1984 : positive control ; 1988 : positive control
98. Muselet Christian - 1986 : police investigation (no penalty)
99. Tinazzi Marcel - 1982 : absence to control ; 1984 : positive control
100. Van Vlierberghe Albert

JOBO-SUPERIA

4 years of existence, 4 cases, ie 1 per year

101. Martinez Mariano - 197x : confessions in 1997 (no penalty) ; 1980 : absence to control (no penalty)
102. Bertolo Dino
103. Biderre Jean-pierre
104. Coccolo Dante
105. Durel Philippe - 1981 : fraud
106. Inaudi Hervé
107. Julien Ferdinand
108. Patritti Alain - 1977 : confessions in 1987 (no penalty) ; 1977 : police investigation
109. Pescheux Jean-françois
110. Romero André - 1975 : positive control



See also