Tour of Spain 1994 : the real numbers of doping

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Last update : 20/08/2022

Statistics

The table below establishes, team by team, the count of the riders who have been or will be subsequently "pinned" in doping cases.

Teams Riders Pinned Top 10 Pinned Podium Pinned
Mapei 10 5 2 1 1 1
Artiach 10 2 1 0 0 0
Banesto 10 2 3 1 2 1
Castellblanch 10 1 1 0 0 0
Euskadi 10 1 0 0 0 0
Kelme 10 4 0 0 0 0
ONCE 10 3 2 1 0 0
Amore & Vita 9 5 0 0 0 0
Brescialat 10 2 0 0 0 0
Jolly 10 4 0 0 0 0
Festina 10 4 1 1 0 0
Mercatone Uno 10 3 0 0 0 0
Navigare 10 6 0 0 0 0
Recer 10 1 0 0 0 0
Porcelena Santa Clara 10 0 0 0 0 0
Sicasal 10 0 0 0 0 0
TVM 10 6 0 0 0 0
Total 169 49 10 4 3 2
Pourcentage 29% 40% 67%

Pinned: Number of riders who violated the anti-doping rules.
Included in this category: riders who have been tested positive (including refuse to submit to doping control or hematocrit> 50%), having acknowledged having doped, having been sanctioned (by the justice, their federation or their team).
Not included (for example) : those whose sample B was negative.
Top 10: number of riders present in the top 10 of the final general classification.
Podium: number of riders present in the first 3 of the final general classification.

Other data :



The official ranking

Ranking source : www.tour-giro-vuelta.net (15/10/2010)

  1. Rominger Tony in 92h07'48'' - 1994 : positive control (no penalty)
  2. Zarrabeitia Mikel at 0h07'28''
  3. Delgado Pedro at 0h09'27'' - 1988 : positive control (no penalty)
  4. Zülle Alex at 0h10'54'' - 1993 : positive control (no penalty) ; 1994 : positive control (no penalty) ; 1998 : blood test, urine, hair ; 1998 : confessions in 1998 (sanction not known)
  5. Rincon Quintana Oliveiro at 0h13'09''
  6. Leblanc Luc at 0h15'27'' - 1994 : confessions in 2000 (no penalty) ; 1998 : confessions (no penalty)
  7. Aparicio Vicente at 0h15'48''
  8. Perez Garcia Luis at 0h16'46''
  9. Escartin Fernando at 0h16'54''
  10. Camargo Alberto at 0h20'35''
  11. Unzaga Bombin Jon at 0h20'36''
  12. Espinosa Sepulv. Luis-edgar at 0h22'43''
  13. Lanfranchi Paolo at 0h22'52''
  14. Lino Pascal at 0h23'14'' - 1993 : positive control ; 1996 : judicial investigation and confessions (no penalty) ; 1999 : confessions in 1999
  15. Cuesta Lopez De Castro Inigo at 0h23'26''
  16. Garcia Camacho Ignacio at 0h24'26''
  17. Gomes Joaquim at 0h24'51''
  18. Mauri Melchior at 0h25'11''
  19. Breukink Erik at 0h29'34''
  20. Olano Abraham at 0h31'11'' - 1994 : positive control ; 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)
  21. Garcia Casas Felix Manuel at 0h33'09''
  22. Echave Musatadi Federico at 0h41'14'' - 1995 : positive control (sanction not known)
  23. Lelli Massimiliano at 0h41'44''
  24. Gonzales Arsenio at 0h43'21''
  25. Meinert-nielsen Peter at 0h45'05'' - 1993 : positive control
  26. Stephens Neil at 0h46'31'' - 1998 : analyses sang, urine, cheveux, aveux en 1998 (sanction not known)
  27. Benitez Esbri Francisco at 0h49'02''
  28. Hervé Pascal at 0h49'19'' - 1998 : blood test, urine, hair ; 1998 : confessions in 2000 (sanction not known) ; 2001 : positive control
  29. Podenzana Massimo at 0h50'28'' - 1986 : positive control
  30. Ruiz Cabestany Pello at 0h54'18''
  31. Hodge Stephen at 0h55'16'' - 1991 : confessions in 2012
  32. Sierra Roberto at 0h59'16''
  33. Miranda Carmelo at 0h59'29''
  34. Alonso Marino at 1h00'23''
  35. Pereira De Jesus Carlos Manuel at 1h00'44''
  36. Hernandez Calvo Santos at 1h02'17''
  37. Rodriguez Garcia José at 1h04'15''
  38. Voskamp Bertus at 1h09'21'' - 1998 : judicial investigation and confessions (no penalty)
  39. Pinho Olivero Carlos at 1h10'42''
  40. Camargo Angel at 1h11'45''
  41. Serrano Rodriguez Marcos-antonio at 1h13'16'' - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)
  42. Coppolillo Michele at 1h15'39'' - 1999 : positive control (no penalty)
  43. Cepele Arunas at 1h17'49''
  44. Fernandez Gines Manuel at 1h18'36''
  45. De Santos Arribas José-luis at 1h20'05''
  46. Donati Massimo at 1h23'00''
  47. Irusta Sampedro Alfredoo at 1h24'11''
  48. Murguialday Javier at 1h24'14''
  49. Lezaun-zubiria Roberto at 1h26'15''
  50. Cadena Villejas Julio-cesar at 1h26'36''
  51. Weltz Johnny at 1h27'42'' - 2000 : confessions in 2015 (no penalty)
  52. Sourkov Youri at 1h27'59''
  53. Gelfi Luca
  54. Laiseka Jaoi Roberto at 1h31'19''
  55. Roscioli Fabio at 1h31'24''
  56. Massi Rodolfo at 1h32'05'' - 1998 : in the act ; 1998 : confessions in 1998 (sanction not known)
  57. Martinez Guttierez Juan-thomas at 1h35'28''
  58. Bagot Jean-claude at 1h35'32''
  59. Gaston Crespi Inaki at 1h37'50''
  60. Mora Zarate Nestor at 1h38'08''
  61. Abreu Campos Manuel at 1h39'43''
  62. Rodrigues Silva Quintino at 1h39'52''
  63. Diaz Zabala Herminio at 1h43'04''
  64. Lauritzen Dag-otto at 1h44'50''
  65. Mota Dos Santos Fernando at 1h48'05''
  66. Garcia Marquina David at 1h49'25''
  67. Cabello Francisco at 1h50'40'' - 1994 : positive control (5 times)
  68. Solaun Solana César at 1h52'32'' - 2001 : police investigation (sanction not known)
  69. Gainetdinov Romes at 1h53'18''
  70. Chujda Petrov. Oleg at 1h53'22''
  71. Garmendia Aitor at 1h53'38'' - 1998 : blood test
  72. Petito Roberto at 1h54'02'' - 1997 : positive control (no penalty)
  73. Neves Da Silva Americo at 1h55'04''
  74. Jalabert Laurent at 1h55'15'' - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)
  75. Pascual Soler Manuel at 1h58'27''
  76. Calcaterra Giuseppe at 1h58'29'' - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)
  77. Emonds Nico at 2h00'39'' - 1990 : positive control ; 1995 : positive control
  78. Freitas De Paiva Cassio at 2h03'47'' - 2002 : positive control
  79. Galarreta Lazaro Carlos at 2h04'42''
  80. Diaz Rodriguez Antonio-miguel at 2h05'55''
  81. Leanizbarrutia Alberto at 2h06'57''
  82. Rodrigues Texeira Alexandre at 2h07'43''
  83. Cerezo Perales Francisco at 2h07'54''
  84. Forconi Riccardo at 2h09'31'' - 1998 : positive control ; 2001 : positive control
  85. Silva Joao at 2h12'35''
  86. Espinosa Jose-antonio at 2h15'49'' - 1993 : positive control (sanction not known)
  87. Torres Roberto at 2h18'32''
  88. Cattai Stefano at 2h18'36''
  89. Anguita Hinojosa Eleuterio at 2h19'11''
  90. Blanco Costa Argimiro at 2h19'44''
  91. Petito Giuseppe at 2h22'35''
  92. Lafis Michel at 2h23'36''
  93. Gilabert Franch Jordi at 2h23'45''
  94. Gonzales De Galdeano Alvaro at 2h23'47'' - 2000 : positive control ; 2001 : police investigation (sanction not known)
  95. Rodrigues Gomes Orlando Sergio at 2h24'21''
  96. Van Poppel Jean-paul at 2h25'04''
  97. Dotti Fausto at 2h25'27''
  98. Gonzalez Salvador Juan-carlos at 2h26'20''
  99. Meier Roland at 2h27'13'' - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty) ; 2001 : positive control
  100. Diaz De Otazu Luis-maria at 2h28'34''
  101. Gorini Gianluca at 2h30'36''
  102. Tcherkachine Dimitri at 2h31'45''
  103. Pierobon Gianluca at 2h31'46'' - 1997 : absence to control (no penalty)
  104. Saitov Asiate at 2h34'02''
  105. Fornaciari Paolo at 2h34'52''
  106. Foucachon René at 2h35'25'' - 1987 : judicial investigation (no penalty) ; 1996 : judicial investigation and confessions ; 1997 : judicial investigation
  107. Pelliconi Roberto at 2h35'33''
  108. Vermote Michel at 2h37'27''
  109. Silva Rodrigues Silv. Pedro-manuel at 2h37'28''
  110. Fanelli Antonio at 2h41'17''
  111. Di Basco Alessio at 2h44'10'' - 1992 : positive control
  112. Garcia Espana Ramon at 2h48'41''
  113. Sanchez Garcia Antonio at 2h50'33''
  114. Anachkine Evgueni at 2h51'16''
  115. Vanderaerden Eric at 2h54'11''
  116. Pagnin Roberto at 2h56'33''
  117. Radaelli Mauro at 3h03'23''
  118. Casado Philippe at 3h04'43''
  119. Kliouchkine Vladimir at 3h11'49''
  120. Vignaduzzi Gianni at 3h22'30''
  121. Abramov Vladimir at 3h37'00''



The alternative ranking

The ranking as it would be if we excluded all racers "pinned" in doping cases during their career.

  1. Zarrabeitia Mikel
  2. Rincon Quintana Oliveiro
  3. Aparicio Vicente
  4. Perez Garcia Luis
  5. Escartin Fernando
  6. Camargo Alberto
  7. Unzaga Bombin Jon
  8. Espinosa Sepulv. Luis-edgar
  9. Lanfranchi Paolo
  10. Cuesta Lopez De Castro Inigo
  11. Garcia Camacho Ignacio
  12. Gomes Joaquim
  13. Mauri Melchior
  14. Breukink Erik
  15. Garcia Casas Felix Manuel
  16. Lelli Massimiliano
  17. Gonzales Arsenio
  18. Benitez Esbri Francisco
  19. Ruiz Cabestany Pello
  20. Sierra Roberto
  21. Miranda Carmelo
  22. Alonso Marino
  23. Pereira De Jesus Carlos Manuel
  24. Hernandez Calvo Santos
  25. Rodriguez Garcia José
  26. Pinho Olivero Carlos
  27. Camargo Angel
  28. Cepele Arunas
  29. Fernandez Gines Manuel
  30. De Santos Arribas José-luis
  31. Donati Massimo
  32. Irusta Sampedro Alfredoo
  33. Murguialday Javier
  34. Lezaun-zubiria Roberto
  35. Cadena Villejas Julio-cesar
  36. Sourkov Youri
  37. Gelfi Luca
  38. Laiseka Jaoi Roberto
  39. Roscioli Fabio
  40. Martinez Guttierez Juan-thomas
  41. Bagot Jean-claude
  42. Gaston Crespi Inaki
  43. Mora Zarate Nestor
  44. Abreu Campos Manuel
  45. Rodrigues Silva Quintino
  46. Diaz Zabala Herminio
  47. Lauritzen Dag-otto
  48. Mota Dos Santos Fernando
  49. Garcia Marquina David
  50. Gainetdinov Romes
  51. Chujda Petrov. Oleg
  52. Neves Da Silva Americo
  53. Pascual Soler Manuel
  54. Galarreta Lazaro Carlos
  55. Diaz Rodriguez Antonio-miguel
  56. Leanizbarrutia Alberto
  57. Rodrigues Texeira Alexandre
  58. Cerezo Perales Francisco
  59. Silva Joao
  60. Torres Roberto
  61. Cattai Stefano
  62. Anguita Hinojosa Eleuterio
  63. Blanco Costa Argimiro
  64. Petito Giuseppe
  65. Lafis Michel
  66. Gilabert Franch Jordi
  67. Rodrigues Gomes Orlando Sergio
  68. Van Poppel Jean-paul
  69. Dotti Fausto
  70. Gonzalez Salvador Juan-carlos
  71. Diaz De Otazu Luis-maria
  72. Gorini Gianluca
  73. Tcherkachine Dimitri
  74. Saitov Asiate
  75. Fornaciari Paolo
  76. Pelliconi Roberto
  77. Vermote Michel
  78. Silva Rodrigues Silv. Pedro-manuel
  79. Fanelli Antonio
  80. Garcia Espana Ramon
  81. Sanchez Garcia Antonio
  82. Anachkine Evgueni
  83. Vanderaerden Eric
  84. Pagnin Roberto
  85. Radaelli Mauro
  86. Casado Philippe
  87. Kliouchkine Vladimir
  88. Vignaduzzi Gianni
  89. Abramov Vladimir



The list of participants

The list of participants by team

Mapei

30 years of existence, 26 cases, ie 0,87 per year

1. Rominger Tony - 1994 : positive control (no penalty)
2. Echave Musatadi Federico - 1995 : positive control (sanction not known)
3. Emonds Nico - 1990 : positive control ; 1995 : positive control
4. Escartin Fernando
5. Gaston Crespi Inaki
6. Gonzales Arsenio
7. Muller Jörg (sui) - 1987 : confessions in 2007 (sanction not known) ; 1988 : journalistic investigation (no penalty)
8. Olano Abraham - 1994 : positive control ; 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)
9. Fernandez Gines Manuel
10. Unzaga Bombin Jon

Artiach

12 years of existence, 3 cases, ie 0,25 per year

11. Garcia Espana Ramon
12. Camargo Alberto
13. Espinosa Sepulv. Luis-edgar
14. Gonzales De Galdeano Alvaro - 2000 : positive control ; 2001 : police investigation (sanction not known)
15. Garcia Casas Felix Manuel
16. Pascual Soler Manuel
17. Rodrigues Gomes Orlando Sergio
18. Sanchez Garcia Antonio
19. Neves Da Silva Americo
20. Weltz Johnny - 2000 : confessions in 2015 (no penalty)

Banesto

43 years of existence, 29 cases, ie 0,67 per year

21. Delgado Pedro - 1988 : positive control (no penalty)
22. Alonso Marino
23. Aparicio Vicente
24. De Santos Arribas José-luis
25. Garmendia Aitor - 1998 : blood test
26. Garcia Marquina David
27. Mauri Melchior
28. Miranda Carmelo
29. Montoya Alarcon Jesus
30. Zarrabeitia Mikel

Castellblanch

31. Anguita Hinojosa Eleuterio
32. Cerezo Perales Francisco
33. Chujda Petrov. Oleg
34. Diaz Rodriguez Antonio-miguel
35. Espinosa Jose-antonio - 1993 : positive control (sanction not known)
36. Galarreta Lazaro Carlos
37. Irusta Sampedro Alfredoo
38. Perez Garcia Luis
39. Rodriguez Garcia José
40. Uria Gonzales José-manuel

Euskadi

41. Ruiz Cabestany Pello
42. Gonzalez Salvador Juan-carlos
43. Gorospe Ruben
44. Martinez Guttierez Juan-thomas
45. Murguialday Javier
46. Sagasti Alegria Agustin
47. Cuesta Lopez De Castro Inigo
48. Laiseka Jaoi Roberto
49. Palacin Javier
50. Solaun Solana César - 2001 : police investigation (sanction not known)

Kelme

36 years of existence, 27 cases, ie 0,75 per year

51. Cubino Laudelino - 1993 : positive control (sanction not known)
52. Garcia Camacho Ignacio
53. Edo Angel - 1998 : blood test
54. Camargo Angel
55. Benitez Esbri Francisco
56. Cabello Francisco - 1994 : positive control (5 times)
57. Cadena Villejas Julio-cesar
58. Saitov Asiate
59. Mora Zarate Nestor
60. Serrano Rodriguez Marcos-antonio - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)

ONCE

18 years of existence, 19 cases, ie 1,06 per year

61. Zülle Alex - 1993 : positive control (no penalty) ; 1994 : positive control (no penalty) ; 1998 : blood test, urine, hair ; 1998 : confessions in 1998 (sanction not known)
62. Breukink Erik
63. Diaz Zabala Herminio
64. Jalabert Laurent - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)
65. Hernandez Calvo Santos
66. Leanizbarrutia Alberto
67. Diaz De Otazu Luis-maria
68. Rincon Quintana Oliveiro
69. Sierra Roberto
70. Stephens Neil - 1998 : analyses sang, urine, cheveux, aveux en 1998 (sanction not known)

Amore & Vita

33 years of existence, 9 cases, ie 0,27 per year

71. Calcaterra Giuseppe - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)
72. Giraldi Stefano
73. Massi Rodolfo - 1998 : in the act ; 1998 : confessions in 1998 (sanction not known)
74. Di Basco Alessio - 1992 : positive control
75. Forconi Riccardo - 1998 : positive control ; 2001 : positive control
76. Fanelli Antonio
77. Lodge Harry
78. Pierobon Gianluca - 1997 : absence to control (no penalty)
79. Lafis Michel

Brescialat

81. Leali Bruno - 2010 : police investigation
82. Bontempi Fabrizio
83. Bordonali Fabio
84. Gelfi Luca
85. Giupponi Flavio - 1988 : absence to control
86. Roscioli Fabio
87. Milesi Marco
88. Pelliconi Roberto
89. Radaelli Mauro
90. Vanderaerden Eric

Jolly

91. Jaskula Zenon - 1993 : confessions in 2007 (no penalty)
92. Bolay Sylvain - 2005 : judicial investigation
93. Casado Philippe
94. Cattai Stefano
95. Dotti Fausto
96. Foucachon René - 1987 : judicial investigation (no penalty) ; 1996 : judicial investigation and confessions ; 1997 : judicial investigation
97. Gorini Gianluca
98. Leoni Endrio - 2001 : in the act ; 2002 : positive control
99. Vignaduzzi Gianni
100. Tcherkassov Pavel

Festina

12 years of existence, 31 cases, ie 2,58 per year

101. Leblanc Luc - 1994 : confessions in 2000 (no penalty) ; 1998 : confessions (no penalty)
102. Bagot Jean-claude
103. Cepele Arunas
104. Hervé Pascal - 1998 : blood test, urine, hair ; 1998 : confessions in 2000 (sanction not known) ; 2001 : positive control
105. Hodge Stephen - 1991 : confessions in 2012
106. Lezaun-zubiria Roberto
107. Lino Pascal - 1993 : positive control ; 1996 : judicial investigation and confessions (no penalty) ; 1999 : confessions in 1999
108. Torres Roberto
109. Van Poppel Jean-paul
110. Vermote Michel

Mercatone Uno

111. Cipollini Mario - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)
112. Baffi Adriano
113. Biasci Simone - 200x : positive control
114. Donati Massimo
115. Fagnini Gianmatteo
116. Fornaciari Paolo
117. Lanfranchi Paolo
118. Lelli Massimiliano
119. Petito Giuseppe
120. Petito Roberto - 1997 : positive control (no penalty)

Navigare

121. Podenzana Massimo - 1986 : positive control
122. Barbero Sergio - 2001 : positive control
123. Castignola Walter
124. Coppolillo Michele - 1999 : positive control (no penalty)
125. Davidenko Vassili - 2001 : positive control
126. Giucolst Roberto
127. Lom Lubos
128. Pagnin Roberto
129. Settembrini Fabrizio - 2001 : police investigation (sanction not known)
130. Strazzer Massimo - 2001 : positive control (no penalty)

Recer

131. Gomes Joaquim
132. Blanco Costa Argimiro
133. Barros Jose
134. Freitas De Paiva Cassio - 2002 : positive control
135. Mota Dos Santos Fernando
136. Pereira De Jesus Carlos Manuel
137. Rosa Ribeiro José
138. Rodrigues Texeira Alexandre
139. Santos Luis
140. Silva Joao

Porcelena Santa Clara

141. Gainetdinov Romes
142. Tcherkachine Dimitri
143. Abramov Vladimir
144. Anachkine Evgueni
145. Baturo Valery
146. Kliouchkine Vladimir
147. Klevtsov Oleg
148. Rodriguez Gil Manuel
149. Gilabert Franch Jordi
150. Santamarta Eloy

Sicasal

151. Abreu Campos Manuel
152. Assuncao David
153. Carneiro Carlos
154. Gamito Vitor Manuel
155. Pinho Olivero Carlos
156. Rodrigues Silva Quintino
157. Ferreira Paulo
158. Silva Rodrigues Silv. Pedro-manuel
159. Sourkov Youri
160. Vieira De Araujo Serafim

TVM

25 years of existence, 30 cases, ie 1,2 per year

161. Millar Robert - 1992 : positive control ; 199x : confessions (no penalty)
162. Skibby Jesper - 1990 : confessions in 2006 (no penalty) ; 1991 : confessions in 2006 (no penalty) ; 1992 : confessions in 2006 (no penalty)
163. Den Bakker Maarten
164. Hoffman Tristan
165. Lauritzen Dag-otto
166. Meier Roland - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty) ; 2001 : positive control
167. Meinert-nielsen Peter - 1993 : positive control
168. Harmeling Rob
169. Theunisse Gert-jan - 1988 : positive control ; 1988 : journalistic investigation (no penalty) ; 1989 : positive control ; 1990 : positive control
170. Voskamp Bertus - 1998 : judicial investigation and confessions (no penalty)



See also