Tour of Spain 1998 : the real numbers of doping

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Last update : 13/05/2019

Statistics

The table below establishes, team by team, the count of the riders who have been or will be subsequently "pinned" in doping cases.

Teams Riders Pinned Top 10 Pinned Podium Pinned
Festina 9 6 1 1 0 0
Avianca 9 3 0 0 0 0
Banesto 9 6 2 2 2 2
Brescialat 9 4 1 1 0 0
Cantina Tollo 9 6 0 0 0 0
Casino 9 4 0 0 0 0
Cofidis 9 2 0 0 0 0
Crédit Agricole 9 1 0 0 0 0
Estepona 9 0 0 0 0 0
Euskaltel 9 2 1 1 0 0
Kelme 9 5 3 2 1 0
Lotto 9 5 0 0 0 0
Mapei 9 6 0 0 0 0
ONCE 9 2 1 1 0 0
Polti 9 2 0 0 0 0
Post Swiss 9 2 0 0 0 0
Rabobank 9 5 0 0 0 0
Saeco 9 5 0 0 0 0
Telekom 9 4 0 0 0 0
TVM 9 7 0 0 0 0
US Postal 9 6 1 1 0 0
Vitalicio Seguros 8 3 0 0 0 0
Total 197 86 10 9 3 2
Pourcentage 43,65% 90% 66,67%

Pinned: Number of riders who violated the anti-doping rules.
Included in this category: riders who have been tested positive (including refuse to submit to doping control or hematocrit> 50%), having acknowledged having doped, having been sanctioned (by the justice, their federation or their team).
Not included (for example) : those whose sample B was negative.
Top 10: number of riders present in the top 10 of the final general classification.
Podium: number of riders present in the first 3 of the final general classification.

Other statistics :



The official ranking

Ranking source : www.tour-giro-vuelta.net (11/10/2010)

  1. Olano Abraham in 93h44'08'' - 1994 : positive control ; 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)
  2. Escartin Fernando at 01'23''
  3. Jimenez José-maria at 02'12'' - 199x : dead in 2003 ; 1993 : positive control (sanction not known)
  4. Armstrong Lance at 02'18'' - 1999 : positive control (no penalty) ; 1999 : laboratory inquiry (no penalty)
  5. Jalabert Laurent at 02'37'' - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)
  6. Heras Roberto at 02'58'' - 2005 : positive control (no penalty)
  7. Gonzales De Galdeano Alvaro at 05'51'' - 2000 : positive control ; 2001 : police investigation (sanction not known)
  8. Zülle Alex at 06'05'' - 1993 : positive control (no penalty) ; 1994 : positive control (no penalty) ; 1998 : blood test, urine, hair ; 1998 : confessions in 1998 (sanction not known)
  9. Serpellini Marco at 08'58'' - 2005 : police investigation (sanction not known)
  10. Serrano Rodriguez Marcos-antonio at 10'17'' - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)
  11. Virenque Richard at 13'33'' - 1994 : confessions in 2000 ; 1998 : blood test, urine, hair (sanction not known) ; 1999 : blood test (sanction not known) ; 1999 : confessions in 1999 (sanction not known)
  12. Odriozola Mugarza Jon at 14'05'' - 2001 : police investigation (sanction not known)
  13. Beltran Manuel at 16'42'' - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty) ; 1999 : positive control (no penalty) ; 1999 : laboratory inquiry (no penalty) ; 2008 : positive control
  14. Castelblanco Jose at 21'28'' - 1996 : positive control ; 1999 : laboratory inquiry (no penalty) ; 2004 : positive control
  15. Camenzind Oscar at 22'25'' - 2004 : positive control
  16. Plaza David at 26'00''
  17. Gougot Fabrice at 30'05''
  18. Simoni Gilberto at 30'32'' - 1998 : blood test ; 2002 : positive control (sanction not known) ; 2002 : positive control (no penalty)
  19. Garcia Casas Felix Manuel at 31'58''
  20. Gualdi Mirko at 36'01''
  21. Osa Aitor at 36'39''
  22. Aiarzaguena Urkidi Inaki at 40'55''
  23. Castresana Angel at 44'28''
  24. Moller Claus Michael at 45'06'' - 1999 : positive control
  25. Rubiera Vigil José-luis at 47'30''
  26. Aebersold Niki at 47'43''
  27. Chaurreau Inigo at 50'33''
  28. Uriarte José-ramon at 54'09''
  29. Etxebarria David at 55'25'' - 2004 : positive control
  30. Gonzales Arsenio at 57'09''
  31. Blanco Gil Santiago at 57'42''
  32. Brochard Laurent at 57'56'' - 1991 : positive control (no penalty) ; 1997 : confessions in 2000 (no penalty) ; 1998 : confessions in 1998 ; 1998 : positive control
  33. Dierckxsens Ludo at 1h01'02'' - 1999 : confessions in 1999
  34. Mauri Melchior at 1h02'41''
  35. Zarrabeitia Mikel at 1h03'42''
  36. Sgambelluri Roberto at 1h03'53'' - 2002 : positive control
  37. Pascual Llorente Javier at 1h08'38'' - 2003 : positive control
  38. Vicario Barbera Juan-carlos at 1h09'30''
  39. Kokorine Vitaly at 1h11'05''
  40. Aerts Mario at 1h11'23''
  41. Etxebarria Arana Unai at 1h14'28''
  42. Bessy Frédéric at 1h15'04''
  43. Munoz Federico at 1h16'09'' - 2004 : positive control
  44. Aguirre Julio-cesar at 1h18'41''
  45. Valoti Gianluca at 1h18'42''
  46. Chanteur Pascal at 1h19'03'' - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)
  47. Garcia Acosta Jose-vicente at 1h27'08''
  48. Boogerd Michael at 1h32'35'' - 2005 : confessions in 2013
  49. Anguita Hinojosa Eleuterio at 1h33'31''
  50. Cali Vincent at 1h33'45'' - 199x : judicial investigation (no penalty)
  51. Cuesta Lopez De Castro Inigo at 1h35'38''
  52. Commesso Salvatore at 1h38'27'' - 2001 : in the act
  53. Sierra Roberto at 1h42'34''
  54. Leanizbarrutia Alberto at 1h42'46''
  55. Figueras Giuliano at 1h43'02'' - 2001 : positive control ; 2002 : positive control
  56. Zberg Marcus at 1h43'32''
  57. Huser Rolf at 1h47'13''
  58. Sorensen Rolf at 1h49'48'' - 199x : confessions in 2013 (no penalty) ; 1993 : judicial investigation (no penalty)
  59. Bourquenoud Pierre at 1h59'05''
  60. Smetanine Serguei at 2h01'11''
  61. Buschor Philipp at 2h01'43''
  62. Guidi Fabrizio at 2h03'08'' - 2005 : positive control (no penalty)
  63. Rodriguez Garcia José at 2h05'05''
  64. De Wolf Steve at 2h09'02'' - 199x : judicial investigation (no penalty)
  65. Hotz Franz at 2h09'03''
  66. Mattan Nico at 2h09'37'' - 2000 : positive control ; 200x : confessions in 2007 (no penalty)
  67. Frattini Cristiano at 2h10'58''
  68. Fernandez Gines Manuel at 2h11'50''
  69. Lafis Michel at 2h13'10''
  70. Totschnig Georg at 2h17'53'' - 2005 : judicial investigation (sanction not known)
  71. Diaz Zabala Herminio at 2h20'53''
  72. Peers Chris at 2h21'30'' - 2003 : judicial investigation
  73. Wauters Marc at 2h21'43''
  74. Diaz De Otazu Luis-maria at 2h27'04''
  75. Edo Angel at 2h27'43'' - 1998 : blood test
  76. Piccoli Mariano at 2h32'49'' - 1999 : police investigation (sanction not known) ; 1999 : positive control (no penalty) ; 2001 : police investigation (no penalty) ; 2005 : police investigation (sanction not known) ; 2010 : police investigation (sanction not known) ; 201x : judicial investigation (no penalty)
  77. Frizzo Maurizio at 2h32'51''
  78. Dietz Bert at 2h36'46'' - 1994 : confessions in 2007 (sanction not known)
  79. Cabello Francisco at 2h38'20'' - 1994 : positive control (5 times)
  80. Hundertmarck Kai at 2h40'25''
  81. Meinert-nielsen Peter at 2h41'29'' - 1993 : positive control
  82. Bertolini Alessandro at 2h45'09'' - 1997 : positive control (sanction not known) ; 2000 : blood test (sanction not known)
  83. Bugno Gianni at 2h49'18'' - 1994 : positive control ; 1997 : judicial investigation (no penalty) ; 1999 : in the act
  84. Laukka Joona at 2h51'27''
  85. Marichal Thierry at 2h52'02'' - 1996 : judicial investigation (no penalty)
  86. Chassot Richard at 2h52'44'' - 199x : confessions in 2008 (no penalty)
  87. Paradis Daniel at 2h53'26'' - 2006 : absence to control
  88. Salvato Cristian at 2h54'43''
  89. Vandevelde Christian at 2h56'33'' - 1999 : confessions in 2012 ; 2004 : confessions in 2012 ; 2004 : confessions in 2012
  90. Peschel Uwe at 2h59'55''
  91. Rich Michael at 3h00'57''
  92. Cagigas Amedo Matias at 3h04'54''
  93. Van Heeswijk Max at 3h05'50'' - 2006 : confessions in 2011 (no penalty)
  94. Hoffman Tristan at 3h06'06''
  95. Raimondi Gian Carlo at 3h09'44''
  96. Morscher Harald at 3h10'13'' - 1999 : blood test
  97. Leon Francisco at 3h11'36''
  98. Ivanov Ruslan at 3h12'32''
  99. Beuchat Roger at 3h29'04''
  100. Agnolutto Christophe at 3h30'43''
  101. Bramati Davide at 3h31'07''
  102. Lotz Marc at 3h36'03'' - 2005 : judicial investigation and confessions
  103. Rokia Anthony at 3h38'59'' - 1996 : judicial investigation (no penalty)
  104. Trenti Guido at 3h42'57'' - 2006 : police investigation (sanction not known)
  105. Wust Marcel at 3h45'21''
  106. Vaughters Jonathan at 3h46'13'' - 1996 : confessions in 2012 (no penalty) ; 1997 : confessions (no penalty) ; 1998 : confessions in 2012 (no penalty)
  107. Nieto Fernandez German at 4h09'30''



The alternative ranking

The ranking as it would be if we excluded all racers "pinned" in doping cases during their career.

  1. Escartin Fernando
  2. Plaza David
  3. Gougot Fabrice
  4. Garcia Casas Felix Manuel
  5. Gualdi Mirko
  6. Osa Aitor
  7. Aiarzaguena Urkidi Inaki
  8. Castresana Angel
  9. Rubiera Vigil José-luis
  10. Aebersold Niki
  11. Chaurreau Inigo
  12. Uriarte José-ramon
  13. Gonzales Arsenio
  14. Blanco Gil Santiago
  15. Mauri Melchior
  16. Zarrabeitia Mikel
  17. Vicario Barbera Juan-carlos
  18. Kokorine Vitaly
  19. Aerts Mario
  20. Etxebarria Arana Unai
  21. Bessy Frédéric
  22. Aguirre Julio-cesar
  23. Valoti Gianluca
  24. Garcia Acosta Jose-vicente
  25. Anguita Hinojosa Eleuterio
  26. Cuesta Lopez De Castro Inigo
  27. Sierra Roberto
  28. Leanizbarrutia Alberto
  29. Zberg Marcus
  30. Huser Rolf
  31. Bourquenoud Pierre
  32. Smetanine Serguei
  33. Buschor Philipp
  34. Rodriguez Garcia José
  35. Hotz Franz
  36. Frattini Cristiano
  37. Fernandez Gines Manuel
  38. Lafis Michel
  39. Diaz Zabala Herminio
  40. Wauters Marc
  41. Diaz De Otazu Luis-maria
  42. Frizzo Maurizio
  43. Hundertmarck Kai
  44. Laukka Joona
  45. Salvato Cristian
  46. Peschel Uwe
  47. Rich Michael
  48. Cagigas Amedo Matias
  49. Hoffman Tristan
  50. Raimondi Gian Carlo
  51. Leon Francisco
  52. Ivanov Ruslan
  53. Beuchat Roger
  54. Agnolutto Christophe
  55. Bramati Davide
  56. Wust Marcel
  57. Nieto Fernandez German



The list of participants

The list of participants by team

Festina

12 years of existence, 26 cases, ie 2,17 per year

1. Zülle Alex - 1993 : positive control (no penalty) ; 1994 : positive control (no penalty) ; 1998 : blood test, urine, hair ; 1998 : confessions in 1998 (sanction not known)
2. Brochard Laurent - 1991 : positive control (no penalty) ; 1997 : confessions in 2000 (no penalty) ; 1998 : confessions in 1998 ; 1998 : positive control
3. Dufaux Laurent - 1998 : blood test, urine, hair, confessions in 1998
4. Garcia Casas Felix Manuel
5. Hervé Pascal - 1998 : blood test, urine, hair ; 1998 : confessions in 2000 (sanction not known) ; 2001 : positive control
6. Rous Didier - 1998 : blood test, urine, hair ; 1998 : confessions in 1998
7. Uriarte José-ramon
8. Virenque Richard - 1994 : confessions in 2000 ; 1998 : blood test, urine, hair (sanction not known) ; 1999 : blood test (sanction not known) ; 1999 : confessions in 1999 (sanction not known)
9. Wust Marcel

Avianca

No doping cases listed for this team

11. Castelblanco Jose - 1996 : positive control ; 1999 : laboratory inquiry (no penalty) ; 2004 : positive control
12. Aguirre Julio-cesar
13. Hernandez Montoya Jairo
14. Leon Francisco
15. Pascual Llorente Javier - 2003 : positive control
16. Mesa Saavedra Luis Ricardo
17. Munoz Federico - 2004 : positive control
18. Osorio Tamayo Carlos Andres
19. Pena Victor-hugo

Banesto

40 years of existence, 29 cases, ie 0,72 per year

21. Olano Abraham - 1994 : positive control ; 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)
22. Beltran Manuel - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty) ; 1999 : positive control (no penalty) ; 1999 : laboratory inquiry (no penalty) ; 2008 : positive control
23. De Las Cuevas Armand - 1995 : border control ; 2006 : positive control
24. Fernandez Gines Manuel
25. Garcia Acosta Jose-vicente
26. Garmendia Aitor - 1998 : blood test
27. Jimenez José-maria - 199x : dead in 2003 ; 1993 : positive control (sanction not known)
28. Odriozola Mugarza Jon - 2001 : police investigation (sanction not known)
29. Osa Aitor

Brescialat

13 years of existence, 2 cases, ie 0,15 per year

31. Contrini Daniele
32. Frattini Cristiano
33. Ivanov Ruslan
34. Milesi Marco
35. Piccoli Mariano - 1999 : police investigation (sanction not known) ; 1999 : positive control (no penalty) ; 2001 : police investigation (no penalty) ; 2005 : police investigation (sanction not known) ; 2010 : police investigation (sanction not known) ; 201x : judicial investigation (no penalty)
36. Raimondi Gian Carlo
37. Serpellini Marco - 2005 : police investigation (sanction not known)
38. Sgambelluri Roberto - 2002 : positive control
39. Moreni Cristian - 2007 : positive control

Cantina Tollo

12 years of existence, 16 cases, ie 1,33 per year

41. Honchar Sergei - 1999 : blood test ; 2007 : blood test
42. Frizzo Maurizio
43. Gentili Massimiliano
44. Giunti Massimo - 2010 : positive control
45. Hvastija Martin - 2001 : in the act
46. Rittsel Martin
47. Simoni Gilberto - 1998 : blood test ; 2002 : positive control (sanction not known) ; 2002 : positive control (no penalty)
48. Strazzer Massimo - 2001 : positive control (no penalty)
49. Trenti Guido - 2006 : police investigation (sanction not known)

Casino

28 years of existence, 17 cases, ie 0,61 per year

51. Agnolutto Christophe
52. Aus Lauri
53. Bessy Frédéric
54. Cali Vincent - 199x : judicial investigation (no penalty)
55. Chanteur Pascal - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)
56. Gougot Fabrice
57. Kasputis Arturas
58. Kirsipuu Jan - 1993 : positive control (sanction not known)
59. Massi Rodolfo - 1998 : in the act (sanction not known) ; 1998 : confessions in 1998 (sanction not known)

Cofidis

24 years of existence, 21 cases, ie 0,88 per year

61. Bertolini Alessandro - 1997 : positive control (sanction not known) ; 2000 : blood test (sanction not known)
62. Capelle Christophe
63. Fondriest Maurizio
64. Gaumont Philippe - 1996 : positive control ; 1996 : positive control ; 1996 : positive control ; 1998 : positive control (2 times) (no penalty) ; 1999 : blood test ; 2004 : confessions
65. Goubert Stéphane
66. Gwiazdowski Grzegorz
67. Plaza David
68. Saugrain Cyril
69. Thibout Bruno

Crédit Agricole

64 years of existence, 73 cases, ie 1,14 per year

71. Boardman Chris
72. Bos Cyril
73. Moncassin Frédéric - 199x : confessions in 2000 (no penalty) ; 1998 : senate inquiry and confessions in 2013 (no penalty)
74. Perraudeau Olivier
75. Petilleau Stephane
76. Pretot Arnaud
77. Seigneur Eddy
78. Vasseur Cédric
79. Vogels Henk (aus)

Estepona

81. Anguita Hinojosa Eleuterio
82. Cagigas Amedo Matias
83. Cerezo Perales Francisco
84. Cerioli Ivan
85. Miranda Carmelo
86. Moratilla Victor
87. Nieto Fernandez German
88. Peschel Uwe
89. Vicario Barbera Juan-carlos

Euskaltel

20 years of existence, 13 cases, ie 0,65 per year

91. Chaurreau Inigo
92. Etxebarria Arana Unai
93. Fernandez Bustinza Bingen
94. Castresana Angel
95. Gonzalez Arrieta José-ramon
96. Gonzales De Galdeano Alvaro - 2000 : positive control ; 2001 : police investigation (sanction not known)
97. Gonzales De Galdeano Igor - 2002 : positive control
98. Laiseka Jaoi Roberto
99. Aiarzaguena Urkidi Inaki

Kelme

36 years of existence, 26 cases, ie 0,72 per year

101. Escartin Fernando
102. Cabello Francisco - 1994 : positive control (5 times)
103. Edo Angel - 1998 : blood test
104. Gonzales Arsenio
105. Gonzalez-pico José-jaime - 2001 : in the act
106. Heras Roberto - 2005 : positive control (no penalty)
107. Rodriguez Garcia José
108. Rubiera Vigil José-luis
109. Serrano Rodriguez Marcos-antonio - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)

Lotto

111. Aerts Mario
112. De Wolf Steve - 199x : judicial investigation (no penalty)
113. Dierckxsens Ludo - 1999 : confessions in 1999
114. Laukka Joona
115. Madouas Laurent - 1994 : positive control
116. Marichal Thierry - 1996 : judicial investigation (no penalty)
117. Peers Chris - 2003 : judicial investigation
118. Tchmil Andrei
119. Teteriouk Andrei

Mapei

121. Vandenbroucke Franck - 1996 : judicial investigation (no penalty) ; 1999 : blood test and confessions in 2008 ; 2002 : in the act ; 2008 : police investigation
122. Bramati Davide
123. Bugno Gianni - 1994 : positive control ; 1997 : judicial investigation (no penalty) ; 1999 : in the act
124. Di Grande Giuseppe - 2001 : in the act
125. Figueras Giuliano - 2001 : positive control ; 2002 : positive control
126. Lanfranchi Paolo
127. Mattan Nico - 2000 : positive control ; 200x : confessions in 2007 (no penalty)
128. Svorada Jan
129. Camenzind Oscar - 2004 : positive control

ONCE

18 years of existence, 18 cases, ie 1 per year

131. Jalabert Laurent - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)
132. Cuesta Lopez De Castro Inigo
133. Diaz De Otazu Luis-maria
134. Diaz Zabala Herminio
135. Etxebarria David - 2004 : positive control
136. Leanizbarrutia Alberto
137. Mauri Melchior
138. Sierra Roberto
139. Zarrabeitia Mikel

Polti

18 years of existence, 8 cases, ie 0,44 per year

141. Guerini Giuseppe
142. Atienza Daniel
143. Crepaldi Mirko
144. Gualdi Mirko
145. Guidi Fabrizio - 2005 : positive control (no penalty)
146. Rokia Anthony - 1996 : judicial investigation (no penalty)
147. Salvato Cristian
148. Valoti Gianluca
149. Zinetti Mauro

Post Swiss

151. Aebersold Niki
152. Beuchat Roger
153. Bourquenoud Pierre
154. Chassot Richard - 199x : confessions in 2008 (no penalty)
155. Hotz Franz
156. Huser Rolf
157. Paradis Daniel - 2006 : absence to control
158. Wirz Guido
159. Zberg Marcus

Rabobank

35 years of existence, 14 cases, ie 0,4 per year

161. Boogerd Michael - 2005 : confessions in 2013
162. Dekker Erik - 1999 : positive control
163. Lotz Marc - 2005 : judicial investigation and confessions
164. Mcewen Robbie
165. Moerenhout Koos
166. Sorensen Rolf - 199x : confessions in 2013 (no penalty) ; 1993 : judicial investigation (no penalty)
167. Van Bon Leon
168. Van Heeswijk Max - 2006 : confessions in 2011 (no penalty)
169. Wauters Marc

Saeco

15 years of existence, 20 cases, ie 1,33 per year

171. Morscher Harald - 1999 : blood test
172. Buschor Philipp
173. Commesso Salvatore - 2001 : in the act
174. Frigo Dario - 1996 : confessions in 2001 (sanction not known) ; 2001 : confessions in 2001 ; 2005 : judicial investigation and confessions
175. Kokorine Vitaly
176. Padrnos Pavel - 2001 : in the act (sanction not known)
177. Moos Alexandre
178. Rich Michael
179. Savoldelli Paolo - 2005 : disciplinary investigation

Telekom

181. Kloden Andreas
182. Baldinger Dirk
183. Blaudzun Michael
184. Dietz Bert - 1994 : confessions in 2007 (sanction not known)
185. Hundertmarck Kai
186. Lombardi Giovanni - 2001 : police investigation (sanction not known)
187. Mueller Dirk - 199x : judicial investigation (no penalty) ; 2000 : positive control
188. Schaffrath Jan
189. Totschnig Georg - 2005 : judicial investigation (sanction not known)

TVM

25 years of existence, 25 cases, ie 1 per year

191. Blijlevens Jeroen - 1998 : judicial investigation (no penalty) ; 1998 : senate inquiry and confessions in 2013 (no penalty) ; 2001 : police investigation (sanction not known)
192. De Jongh Steven - 1998 : judicial investigation and confessions
193. Knaven Servais - 1998 : judicial investigation (no penalty)
194. Lafis Michel
195. Moller Claus Michael - 1999 : positive control
196. Ouchakov Sergueï - 1998 : judicial investigation (no penalty)
197. Hoffman Tristan
198. Van Petegem Peter - 1998 : judicial investigation (no penalty)
199. Voskamp Bertus - 1998 : judicial investigation and confessions (no penalty)

US Postal

17 years of existence, 17 cases, ie 1 per year

201. Armstrong Lance - 1999 : positive control (no penalty) ; 1999 : laboratory inquiry (no penalty)
202. Ekimov Viatcheslav
203. Llaneras Joan - 2001 : positive control (no penalty)
204. Meinert-nielsen Peter - 1993 : positive control
205. Robin Jean-cyril - 199x : confessions in 2004 (sanction not known)
206. Teutenberg Sven
207. Vandevelde Christian - 1999 : confessions in 2012 ; 2004 : confessions in 2012 ; 2004 : confessions in 2012
208. Vaughters Jonathan - 1996 : confessions in 2012 (no penalty) ; 1997 : confessions (no penalty) ; 1998 : confessions in 2012 (no penalty)
209. Villatoro Anton

Vitalicio Seguros

3 years of existence, 4 cases, ie 1,33 per year

211. Casero Angel - 1996 : positive control (no penalty)
212. Blanco Gil Santiago
213. Aggiano Elio
214. Clavero Sebastian Daniel - 1998 : blood test ; 2001 : police investigation
215. Dominguez Juan-carlos - 1998 : blood test ; 2006 : blood test
216. Garcia Marquina David
217. Indurain Prudencio
218. Smetanine Serguei



See also