Tour of Spain 2005 : the real numbers of doping

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Last update : 06/07/2019

Statistics

The table below establishes, team by team, the count of the riders who have been or will be subsequently "pinned" in doping cases.

Teams Riders Pinned Top 10 Pinned Podium Pinned
Phonak Hearing Systems 9 3 0 0 0 0
Illes Baleares-Banesto 9 3 1 0 1 0
Bouygues Telecom 9 2 0 0 0 0
Com. Valenciana - elche 9 6 2 0 0 0
Cofidis - Le crédit par Téléphone 9 2 0 0 0 0
Crédit Agricole 9 0 0 0 0 0
Davitamon - Lotto 9 2 1 1 0 0
Discovery Channel Pro Cycling Team 9 6 1 1 0 0
Domina Vacanze 9 1 0 0 0 0
Euskaltel - Euskadi 9 4 1 1 0 0
Fassa Bortolo 9 6 0 0 0 0
Française des jeux 9 2 0 0 0 0
Gerolsteiner 9 0 0 0 0 0
Lampre - Caffitta 9 3 0 0 0 0
Liquigas - Bianchi 9 1 0 0 0 0
Quick Step 9 3 1 0 0 0
Rabobank 9 3 1 1 1 1
Relax-Fuenlabrada 9 3 0 0 0 0
Saunier Duval-Prodir 9 4 0 0 0 0
Team CSC 9 5 1 0 1 0
T-Mobile 9 5 1 1 0 0
Liberty Seguros 9 7 0 0 0 0
Total 198 71 10 5 3 1
Pourcentage 35,86% 50% 33,33%

Pinned: Number of riders who violated the anti-doping rules.
Included in this category: riders who have been tested positive (including refuse to submit to doping control or hematocrit> 50%), having acknowledged having doped, having been sanctioned (by the justice, their federation or their team).
Not included (for example) : those whose sample B was negative.
Top 10: number of riders present in the top 10 of the final general classification.
Podium: number of riders present in the first 3 of the final general classification.

Other statistics :



The official ranking

Ranking source : www.lavuelta.com (11/05/2008)

  1. Menchov Denis in 82h27'31'' - 2012 : biological passport
  2. Sastre Carlos at 00'18''
  3. Mancebo Francisco at 01'22''
  4. Garcia Quesada Carlos at 03'30''
  5. Plaza Molina Ruben at 07'00''
  6. Sevilla Oscar at 08'46'' - 2000 : positive control (no penalty) ; 2010 : positive control
  7. Danielson Thomas at 12'02'' - 2005 : confessions in 2012 ; 2015 : positive control
  8. Ardila Cano Mauricio Alberto at 13'39'' - 2003 : positive control
  9. Mercado Juan Miguel at 13'55''
  10. Sanchez Gonzalez Samuel at 15'36'' - 2017 : positive control
  11. Scarponi Michele at 27'08'' - 2006 : confessions in 2007 ; 2010 : confessions in 2012
  12. Blanco Rodriguez David at 30'21''
  13. Moerenhout Koos at 30'27''
  14. Jufre Pou Josep at 30'57''
  15. Aerts Mario at 31'42''
  16. Atienza Daniel at 31'47''
  17. Osa Eizaguirre Unai at 32'38'' - 2001 : police investigation (sanction not known)
  18. Serrano Rodriguez Marcos-antonio at 34'01'' - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)
  19. Lastras Garcia Pablo at 36'09'' - 2001 : police investigation (sanction not known)
  20. Botcharov Alexandre at 37'38''
  21. Laiseka Jaoi Roberto at 43'10''
  22. Calvente Gorbas Manuel at 45'59''
  23. Szmyd Sylvester at 46'14''
  24. Devolder Stijn at 46'14''
  25. Pereiro Oscar at 47'18''
  26. Horrach Ripoll Joan at 48'08''
  27. Pena Victor-hugo at 49'38''
  28. Pasamontes Rodriguez Luis at 56'38''
  29. Cuesta Lopez De Castro Inigo at 1h00'47''
  30. Elias Galindo Jose Miguel at 1h05'51''
  31. Vandevelde Christian at 1h07'53'' - 1999 : confessions in 2012 ; 2004 : confessions in 2012 ; 2004 : confessions in 2012
  32. Sanchez Pimienta Julian at 1h12'01''
  33. Fernandez Bustinza Bingen at 1h12'31''
  34. Garcia Quesada Adolfo at 1h14'11'' - 2006 : positive control
  35. Piepoli Leonardo at 1h15'04'' - 2007 : positive control (2 times) ; 2008 : positive control (2 times)
  36. Jimenez Sanchez Eladio at 1h19'22'' - 2009 : positive control
  37. Rodriguez Oliver Joaquin at 1h21'23''
  38. Sorensen Nicki at 1h22'19'' - 2004 : confessions in 2015 (no penalty)
  39. Beloki Joseba at 1h22'43''
  40. Calcagni Patrick at 1h24'26''
  41. Pascual Rodriguez Javier at 1h25'17'' - 2003 : positive control
  42. Gonzalez Gorka at 1h26'56'' - 2004 : positive control
  43. Aldag Rolf at 1h27'24'' - 1995 : confessions in 2007 (sanction not known)
  44. Nardello Daniele at 1h28'24''
  45. Martinez De Esteban Egoi at 1h29'19''
  46. Duenas Nevado Moises at 1h31'02'' - 2008 : positive control
  47. Vicioso Angel at 1h31'13'' - 2004 : judicial investigation and confessions
  48. Van Goolen Jurgen at 1h31'42''
  49. Bernabeu Armengol David at 1h37'22'' - 2003 : 2 positive controls
  50. Simoni Gilberto at 1h37'31'' - 1998 : blood test ; 2002 : positive control (sanction not known) ; 2002 : positive control (no penalty)
  51. Casero Rafael at 1h38'04'' - 2006 : positive control
  52. Perez Sanchez Francisco Jr at 1h38'30'' - 2003 : positive control (2 times)
  53. Haussler Heinrich at 1h42'15''
  54. Kolobnev Alexandr at 1h43'51'' - 2011 : positive control
  55. Fuentes Angullo Juan Manuel at 1h44'41''
  56. Barry Michael at 1h45'38'' - 2003 : confessions in 2012
  57. Noval Gonzalez Benjamin at 1h45'39''
  58. Zaballa Gutierrez Constantino at 1h45'47'' - 2002 : positive control ; 2010 : positive control ; 2014 : positive control
  59. Caruso Giampaolo at 1h50'14'' - 2003 : positive control ; 2005 : puerto scandal (no penalty) ; 2012 : positive control
  60. Wegelius Charley at 1h50'24''
  61. Garcia Marin Jorge at 1h56'48''
  62. Zabel Erik at 1h58'31'' - 1994 : positive control (no penalty) ; 1996 : confessions in 2007 and 2013 ; 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)
  63. Vogondy Nicolas at 2h00'15''
  64. Peron Andrea at 2h03'39'' - 2001 : in the act (no penalty) ; 2004 : in the act (no penalty) ; 2011 : positive control (sanction not known)
  65. Ziegler Thomas at 2h03'40''
  66. Le Mével Christophe at 2h06'18''
  67. De Groot Bram at 2h07'35''
  68. Gomez Marchante José Angel at 2h10'06''
  69. Burgos Nacor at 2h10'45''
  70. Latasa Lasa David at 2h10'48'' - 2001 : police investigation (sanction not known)
  71. Garcia Acosta Jose-vicente at 2h11'31''
  72. Gerdemann Linus at 2h17'25''
  73. Pradera Rodriguez Mikel at 2h17'28''
  74. Charteau Anthony at 2h24'16'' - 2012 : positive control
  75. Lopez Garcia David at 2h25'05''
  76. Burghardt Marcus at 2h25'35''
  77. Gutierrez Cataluna José-ignacio at 2h25'46''
  78. Ongarato Alberto at 2h26'09'' - 2002 : in the act
  79. Baranowski Dariusz at 2h30'15''
  80. Verbrugghe Rik at 2h30'22''
  81. Roy Jérémy at 2h33'38''
  82. Cortinovis Alessandro at 2h34'49''
  83. Van Hecke Preben at 2h35'17''
  84. Scheirlinckx Staf at 2h38'57''
  85. Bernucci Lorenzo at 2h38'58'' - 2007 : positive control ; 2010 : judicial investigation
  86. Elmiger Martin at 2h39'25''
  87. Montgomery Sven at 2h41'03''
  88. Petacchi Alessandro at 2h43'34'' - 2007 : positive control ; 2012 : judicial investigation (sanction not known)
  89. Gonzales De Galdeano Igor at 2h43'48'' - 2002 : positive control
  90. Matzbacher Andreas at 2h44'13''
  91. Venebergh Thorwald at 2h45'57''
  92. Ghisalberti Sergio at 2h47'17''
  93. Ventoso Alberdi Francisco José at 2h49'57'' - 2008 : positive control
  94. De Weert Kevin at 2h50'27''
  95. Dockx Bart at 2h51'29''
  96. Pena Iza Aketza at 2h53'17''
  97. Van Bon Leon at 2h58'39''
  98. Florencio Cabre Xavier at 2h59'25'' - 2010 : internal control
  99. Mugerli Matej at 3h00'37''
  100. Marzano Marco at 3h01'20''
  101. Voeckler Thomas at 3h03'12''
  102. Peschel Uwe at 3h04'09''
  103. Gerosa Mauro at 3h04'28''
  104. Steegmans Gert at 3h05'29''
  105. Horrillo Munoz Pedro at 3h07'39'' - 2007 : positive control (no penalty)
  106. Ordowski Volker at 3h09'38''
  107. Klier Andreas at 3h10'30'' - 1999 : confessions in 2013 (no penalty)
  108. Mcleod Ian at 3h14'35'' - 2010 : positive control
  109. Miorin Devis at 3h16'42''
  110. Kohl Bernhard at 3h17'26'' - 2005 : confessions in 2009 (sanction not known) ; 2008 : positive control (2 times) ; 2008 : positive control (no penalty)
  111. Backstedt Magnus at 3h19'24''
  112. Coyot Arnaud at 3h21'52''
  113. Ljungqvist Marcus at 3h22'08''
  114. Lombardi Giovanni at 3h22'53'' - 2001 : police investigation (sanction not known)
  115. Korff Andre at 3h23'37''
  116. Baldato Fabio at 3h24'23''
  117. Zanotti Marco at 3h24'26''
  118. Duclos-lassalle Hervé at 3h27'50''
  119. Nuritdinov Rafael at 3h28'38''
  120. Gates Nick at 3h40'39''
  121. Haselbacher René at 3h42'34''
  122. Finot Frédéric at 3h46'09''
  123. Johansen Allan at 3h52'50''
  124. Casper Jimmy at 3h56'06'' - 2007 : positive control (no penalty) ; 2008 : positive control (no penalty)
  125. Vaugrenard Benoît at 3h59'33''
  126. Gene Yohann at 4h12'21''



The alternative ranking

The ranking as it would be if we excluded all racers "pinned" in doping cases during their career.

  1. Sastre Carlos
  2. Mancebo Francisco
  3. Garcia Quesada Carlos
  4. Plaza Molina Ruben
  5. Mercado Juan Miguel
  6. Blanco Rodriguez David
  7. Moerenhout Koos
  8. Jufre Pou Josep
  9. Aerts Mario
  10. Atienza Daniel
  11. Botcharov Alexandre
  12. Laiseka Jaoi Roberto
  13. Calvente Gorbas Manuel
  14. Szmyd Sylvester
  15. Devolder Stijn
  16. Pereiro Oscar
  17. Horrach Ripoll Joan
  18. Pena Victor-hugo
  19. Pasamontes Rodriguez Luis
  20. Cuesta Lopez De Castro Inigo
  21. Elias Galindo Jose Miguel
  22. Sanchez Pimienta Julian
  23. Fernandez Bustinza Bingen
  24. Rodriguez Oliver Joaquin
  25. Beloki Joseba
  26. Calcagni Patrick
  27. Nardello Daniele
  28. Martinez De Esteban Egoi
  29. Van Goolen Jurgen
  30. Haussler Heinrich
  31. Fuentes Angullo Juan Manuel
  32. Noval Gonzalez Benjamin
  33. Wegelius Charley
  34. Garcia Marin Jorge
  35. Vogondy Nicolas
  36. Ziegler Thomas
  37. Le Mével Christophe
  38. De Groot Bram
  39. Gomez Marchante José Angel
  40. Burgos Nacor
  41. Garcia Acosta Jose-vicente
  42. Gerdemann Linus
  43. Pradera Rodriguez Mikel
  44. Lopez Garcia David
  45. Burghardt Marcus
  46. Gutierrez Cataluna José-ignacio
  47. Baranowski Dariusz
  48. Verbrugghe Rik
  49. Roy Jérémy
  50. Cortinovis Alessandro
  51. Van Hecke Preben
  52. Scheirlinckx Staf
  53. Elmiger Martin
  54. Montgomery Sven
  55. Matzbacher Andreas
  56. Venebergh Thorwald
  57. Ghisalberti Sergio
  58. De Weert Kevin
  59. Dockx Bart
  60. Pena Iza Aketza
  61. Van Bon Leon
  62. Mugerli Matej
  63. Marzano Marco
  64. Voeckler Thomas
  65. Peschel Uwe
  66. Gerosa Mauro
  67. Steegmans Gert
  68. Ordowski Volker
  69. Miorin Devis
  70. Backstedt Magnus
  71. Coyot Arnaud
  72. Ljungqvist Marcus
  73. Korff Andre
  74. Baldato Fabio
  75. Zanotti Marco
  76. Duclos-lassalle Hervé
  77. Nuritdinov Rafael
  78. Gates Nick
  79. Haselbacher René
  80. Finot Frédéric
  81. Johansen Allan
  82. Vaugrenard Benoît
  83. Gene Yohann



The list of participants

The list of participants by team

Phonak Hearing Systems

20 years of existence, 17 cases, ie 0,85 per year

11. Botero Santiago - 1999 : positive control ; 2002 : positive control (no penalty)
12. Elmiger Martin
13. Gonzalez Capilla Santos - 2005 : internal control (no penalty) ; 2005 : internal control (no penalty) ; 2006 : positive control
14. Gutierrez Cataluna José-ignacio
15. Gutierrez José-enrique
16. Landis Floyd - 2006 : positive control ; 2006 : judicial investigation
17. Martin Perdiguero Miguel-angel
18. Pena Victor-hugo
19. Pereiro Oscar

Illes Baleares-Banesto

21. Mancebo Francisco
22. Garcia Acosta Jose-vicente
23. Gutierrez Palacios José Ivan
24. Horrach Ripoll Joan
25. Perez Sanchez Francisco Jr - 2003 : positive control (2 times)
26. Lastras Garcia Pablo - 2001 : police investigation (sanction not known)
27. Pradera Rodriguez Mikel
28. Osa Aitor
29. Osa Eizaguirre Unai - 2001 : police investigation (sanction not known)

Bouygues Telecom

20 years of existence, 3 cases, ie 0,15 per year

31. Charteau Anthony - 2012 : positive control
32. Chavanel Sébastien
33. Fedrigo Pierrick
34. Gene Yohann
35. Geslin Anthony
36. Kern Christophe
37. Renier Franck
38. Voeckler Thomas
39. Yus Unaï - 2005 : in the act (no penalty)

Com. Valenciana - elche

41. Bernabeu Armengol David - 2003 : 2 positive controls
42. Blanco Rodriguez David
43. Casero Angel - 1996 : positive control (no penalty)
44. Garcia Quesada Adolfo - 2006 : positive control
45. Garcia Quesada Carlos
46. Jimenez Sanchez Eladio - 2009 : positive control
47. Latasa Lasa David - 2001 : police investigation (sanction not known)
48. Pascual Rodriguez Javier - 2003 : positive control
49. Plaza Molina Ruben

Cofidis - Le crédit par Téléphone

24 years of existence, 21 cases, ie 0,88 per year

51. Atienza Daniel
52. Bertagnolli Leonardo - 2012 : biological passport
53. Casper Jimmy - 2007 : positive control (no penalty) ; 2008 : positive control (no penalty)
54. Coyot Arnaud
55. Edaleine Christophe
56. Fernandez Bustinza Bingen
57. Duclos-lassalle Hervé
58. Perez Rodriguez Luis
59. Scheirlinckx Staf

Crédit Agricole

64 years of existence, 73 cases, ie 1,14 per year

61. Bellotti Francesco
62. Botcharov Alexandre
63. Dean Julian
64. Hushovd Thor
65. Joly Sébastien
66. Le Mével Christophe
67. Leblacher Eric
68. Poilvet Benoit
69. Vogondy Nicolas

Davitamon - Lotto

71. Ardila Cano Mauricio Alberto - 2003 : positive control
72. Dockx Bart
73. Gates Nick
74. Aerts Mario
75. Moerenhout Koos
76. Steegmans Gert
77. Steels Tom - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)
78. Van Bon Leon
79. Van Hecke Preben

Discovery Channel Pro Cycling Team

17 years of existence, 17 cases, ie 1 per year

81. Azevedo José Bento
82. Beltran Manuel - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty) ; 1999 : positive control (no penalty) ; 1999 : laboratory inquiry (no penalty) ; 2008 : positive control
83. Danielson Thomas - 2005 : confessions in 2012 ; 2015 : positive control
84. Devolder Stijn
85. Hoste Leif - 2012 : biological passport
86. Joachim Benoît - 2000 : positive control (no penalty)
87. Noval Gonzalez Benjamin
88. Barry Michael - 2003 : confessions in 2012
89. Van Heeswijk Max - 2006 : confessions in 2011 (no penalty)

Domina Vacanze

3 years of existence, 1 case, ie 0,33 per year

91. Cadamuro Simone
92. Cortinovis Alessandro
93. Fertonani Marco - 2007 : positive control
94. Furlan Angelo
95. Ghisalberti Sergio
96. Ivanov Ruslan
97. Lorenzetto Mircoze
98. Nuritdinov Rafael
99. Solari Luca

Euskaltel - Euskadi

20 years of existence, 13 cases, ie 0,65 per year

101. Gonzalez Aitor - 2005 : positive control ; 2006 : positive control
102. Gonzalez Gorka - 2004 : positive control
103. Irizar Aranburu Markel
104. Laiseka Jaoi Roberto
105. Lopez Garcia David
106. Martinez De Esteban Egoi
107. Mayo Iban - 2007 : positive control (no penalty) ; 2007 : positive control
108. Pena Iza Aketza
109. Sanchez Gonzalez Samuel - 2017 : positive control

Fassa Bortolo

6 years of existence, 6 cases, ie 1 per year

111. Baldato Fabio
112. Codol Massimo - 2001 : police investigation (sanction not known)
113. Bernucci Lorenzo - 2007 : positive control ; 2010 : judicial investigation
114. Ongarato Alberto - 2002 : in the act
115. Petacchi Alessandro - 2007 : positive control ; 2012 : judicial investigation (sanction not known)
116. Sacchi Fabio - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty) ; 2002 : in the act
117. Sanchez Pimienta Julian
118. Tosatto Mauro Matteo
119. Velo Marco - 1994 : positive control ; 1999 : positive control ; 2000 : positive control

Française des jeux

121. Auger Ludovic
122. Eisel Bernhard
123. Finot Frédéric
124. Guesdon Frédéric
125. Mcgee Bradley
126. Mcleod Ian - 2010 : positive control
127. Roy Jérémy
128. Vaugrenard Benoît
129. Veikkanen Jussi - 2001 : positive control

Gerolsteiner

12 years of existence, 13 cases, ie 1,08 per year

131. Haselbacher René
132. Haussler Heinrich
133. Montgomery Sven
134. Ordowski Volker
135. Peschel Uwe
136. Russ Matthias
137. Schmidt Torsten
138. Strauss Marcel
139. Ziegler Thomas

Lampre - Caffitta

141. Bonomi Giosuè
142. Figueras Giuliano - 2001 : positive control ; 2002 : positive control
143. Fuentes Angullo Juan Manuel
144. Glomser Gerrit
145. Marzano Marco
146. Matzbacher Andreas
147. Simoni Gilberto - 1998 : blood test ; 2002 : positive control (sanction not known) ; 2002 : positive control (no penalty)
148. Szmyd Sylvester
149. Vila Errandonea Francisco-javier - 2008 : positive control

Liquigas - Bianchi

10 years of existence, 7 cases, ie 0,7 per year

151. Backstedt Magnus
152. Calcagni Patrick
153. Gerosa Mauro
154. Ljungqvist Marcus
155. Miorin Devis
156. Mason Oscar - 1998 : positive control
157. Mugerli Matej
158. Wegelius Charley
159. Zanotti Marco

Quick Step

161. Bettini Paolo
162. Boonen Tom - 2007 : positive control (no penalty) ; 2008 : positive control ; 2009 : positive control
163. De Weert Kevin
164. Garrido Lima José Antonio
165. Mercado Juan Miguel
166. Pecharroman José Antonio - 2007 : positive control
167. Trenti Guido - 2006 : police investigation (sanction not known)
168. Van Goolen Jurgen
169. Verbrugghe Rik

Rabobank

36 years of existence, 14 cases, ie 0,39 per year

171. Boven Jan
172. De Groot Bram
173. Hayman Matthew
174. Horrillo Munoz Pedro - 2007 : positive control (no penalty)
175. Kolobnev Alexandr - 2011 : positive control
176. Menchov Denis - 2012 : biological passport
177. Scheuneman Niels
178. Vastaranta Jukka
179. Venebergh Thorwald

Relax-Fuenlabrada

24 years of existence, 6 cases, ie 0,25 per year

181. Burgos Nacor
182. Duenas Nevado Moises - 2008 : positive control
183. Elias Galindo Jose Miguel
184. Florencio Cabre Xavier - 2010 : internal control
185. Garcia Marin Jorge
186. Jufre Pou Josep
187. Laguna Oscar - 2005 : positive control
188. Pasamontes Rodriguez Luis
189. Perez Romero Luis

Saunier Duval-Prodir

8 years of existence, 11 cases, ie 1,38 per year

191. Canada David
192. Casero Rafael - 2006 : positive control
193. Cuesta Lopez De Castro Inigo
194. De La Fuente Rasilla David
195. Gomez Marchante José Angel
196. Piepoli Leonardo - 2007 : positive control (2 times) ; 2008 : positive control (2 times)
197. Rodriguez Oliver Joaquin
198. Ventoso Alberdi Francisco José - 2008 : positive control
199. Zaballa Gutierrez Constantino - 2002 : positive control ; 2010 : positive control ; 2014 : positive control

Team CSC

19 years of existence, 13 cases, ie 0,68 per year

201. Sastre Carlos
202. Calvente Gorbas Manuel
203. Gerdemann Linus
204. Johansen Allan
205. Lombardi Giovanni - 2001 : police investigation (sanction not known)
206. Peron Andrea - 2001 : in the act (no penalty) ; 2004 : in the act (no penalty) ; 2011 : positive control (sanction not known)
207. Piil Jakob - 1997 : positive control (no penalty) ; 199x : judicial investigation (no penalty)
208. Sorensen Nicki - 2004 : confessions in 2015 (no penalty)
209. Vandevelde Christian - 1999 : confessions in 2012 ; 2004 : confessions in 2012 ; 2004 : confessions in 2012

T-Mobile

23 years of existence, 31 cases, ie 1,35 per year

211. Sevilla Oscar - 2000 : positive control (no penalty) ; 2010 : positive control
212. Aldag Rolf - 1995 : confessions in 2007 (sanction not known)
213. Burghardt Marcus
214. Korff Andre
215. Klier Andreas - 1999 : confessions in 2013 (no penalty)
216. Kohl Bernhard - 2005 : confessions in 2009 (sanction not known) ; 2008 : positive control (2 times) ; 2008 : positive control (no penalty)
217. Lara Ruiz Francisco-josé
218. Nardello Daniele
219. Zabel Erik - 1994 : positive control (no penalty) ; 1996 : confessions in 2007 and 2013 ; 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)

Liberty Seguros

18 years of existence, 18 cases, ie 1 per year

1 B. Baranowski Dariusz
2 B. Beloki Joseba
3 C. Caruso Giampaolo - 2003 : positive control ; 2005 : puerto scandal (no penalty) ; 2012 : positive control
4 G. Gonzales De Galdeano Igor - 2002 : positive control
5 H. Heras Roberto - 2005 : positive control (no penalty)
6 N. Nozal Isidro - 2005 : positive control ; 2009 : positive control
7 S. Scarponi Michele - 2006 : confessions in 2007 ; 2010 : confessions in 2012
8 S. Serrano Rodriguez Marcos-antonio - 1998 : senate inquiry (no penalty)
9 V. Vicioso Angel - 2004 : judicial investigation and confessions



See also